Manual Toxicology of 1 - 3-Beta-Glucans: Glucans as a Marker for Fungal Exposure

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Glucans as a Marker for Fungal Exposure A component of the fungal cell wall, 1 3- glucans not only affect human health, they Toxicology.
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Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry , 93 4 , Patti C. Zeidler-Erdely, Lori A. Battelli, Sam Stone, Bean T. Chen, David G. Kashon, Ronnee Andrews, James M. Simenonova, Identification of systemic markers from a single carbon nanotube exposure, , Journal of Occupational Medicine Jun;53 6 Suppl :S Exp Lung Res 35, , Kisin, S. Leonard, S-H.

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Young, C. Kommineni, V. Kagan, V. Castranova, A. Toxicology Mar 29; 3 Shih-Houng Young, James M.

Toxicology of 1 - 3-Beta-Glucans: Glucans as a Marker for Fungal Exposure

Antonini, Jenny R. Experimental Lung Research , 34, p Roberts, Aaron D. Erdely, Patti C. Journal of Immunological Methods p , Particle and Fibre Toxicology , Shih-Houng Young, Gary R. Ostroff, Patti C.


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Zeidler-Erdely, Jenny R. Roberts, James M. Antonini, Vincent Castranova. Toxicology and Environmental Health part A, 70 p. Health Part A. Young, S-H.

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Obesity is often associated with inflammatory conditions that lead to an activation of the innate immune system. Insulin sensitivity as well as circulating levels and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were, however, unaffected. The publications by Babineau et al. Long-term stress is another factor known to weaken the immune system. EFSA rejected all generic claim applications Also, the two product-specific The Panel concluded that a cause and effect relationship has not been established.

The major reasons for rejection in those cases were the use of a non-validated questionnaire on common cold as well as limitations of the statistical analysis. However, EFSA has not granted any of the applications for product-specific Only generic These numerous rejections indicate the very high benchmark demanded by EFSA for claim substantiation on immune function.

It has been used for over a thousand of years in the production of bread, wine, and beer. Although allergies to S. In general, yeast products are very well tolerated. The result of the EFSA evaluation is, among others, based on the significant history of safe use of yeast and on data from human and animal studies. When adverse events occurred, they were either not associated with the intake of the study products, or they were comparable to the intake of placebo. However, these adverse reactions were only associated with intravenous application [ 57 , 58 ].

Such adverse events never have been reported after oral application. For example, macrophages were activated, but only reacted if foreign cells bacteria, viruses, parasites invade the system. Based on several weaknesses regarding study design and statistical evaluations the panel concluded that a cause and effect relationship has not been established.

What Are Beta Glucans?

Dectin-1 receptor activation induces several immune-stimulating effects important in the defense against invading pathogens. So far, this has only been shown for the insoluble fraction. HS has drafted and written the manuscript. VE and JG have been involved in drafting the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. VE is working as a scientist in the technical service of the animal nutrition department of Leiber GmbH Bramsche, Germany.

We thank I. Wohlfahrt for correction of the manuscript and editing of the English language. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. The snippet could not be located in the article text.

This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article. Nutr J. Published online Apr PMID: Corresponding author. Heike Stier: moc. Received Nov 11; Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Beta-glucans are a heterogeneous group of natural polysaccharides mostly investigated for their immunological effects. Introduction A well-functioning immune system is crucial for staying healthy.

Open in a separate window. Acknowledgements We thank I.


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Anticomplementary factor in fresh yeast. J Biol Chem. Properdin system and immunity. Interaction of the properdin system with polysaccharides. Beta-glucans, history, and the present: immunomodulatory aspects and mechanisms of action. J Immunotoxicol. Glucans as biological response modifiers. Open Glycoscience. Crit Rev Biotechnol. Orient Pharm Exp Med.

Carbohydr Polym. Cell Microbiol. The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells. J Hematol Oncol. The lung cells were prepared as previously described [ 20 ]. Briefly, the lung vessel was perfused with 2 ml of chilled PBS containing 0. After teasing the digested tissue and filtration through cotton wool, single cell suspensions were collected. The numbers of viable cells were determined by the trypan blue exclusion method.

Fluorescence data are expressed as the percentage of positive cells. Mice were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and exsanguinated from the cut abdominal aorta and vein. Both ends of the bones were cut and then the marrow was flushed with PBS using a syringe with a 25G needle. The marrow suspension was passed through nylon mesh to remove small pieces of bone and debris and red blood cells were lysed with ammonium chloride.

The spleen was pushed through a sterile stainless wire mesh mesh and red blood cells were also lysed with ammonium chloride. The numbers of viable cells were determined by the trypan blue Invitrogen Co. BMDCs were differentiated using a modified protocol of Lutz et al [ 25 ]. On day 3, another same volume of medium was added to the culture. These cells immature BMDC were resuspended in the medium.

Thereafter, the phenotypes and function of BMDCs were evaluated in terms of the expression pattern of surface markers and antigen-presenting activity. FACS analysis was performed using the same protocol as in the in vivo study. This experiment was repeated four times using two to three animals in each group. T cells were isolated from the splenocytes using a nylon fiber column Wako Pure Chemical Industries. After 91 h, cell proliferation and cytokine production from T cells were measured.

The same experiment was repeated three times using three animals per group. This technique is based on the incorporation of the pyrimidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine BrdU instead of thymidine into the DNA of proliferating cells. Cell proliferation was measured by adding BrdU to each well 20 h before measurement. Bonferroni corrections were used for post hoc tests to examine the difference between the two groups. Significance was assigned to P-values smaller than 0. On the other hand, in experiments using Cellularity in bronchoalveolar lavage BAL fluid after intratracheal challenge.

Bronchoalveolar lavage BAL was conducted 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation. Total cell counts were determined on fresh BAL fluid, and differential cell counts were assessed with Diff-Quik-staining. No pathological change was noted in lungs obtained from the vehicle group. On the other hand, the infiltration of eosinophils was moderate in lungs from the OVA group. To quantify the infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes around the airways, we expressed the number of these cells per length of basement membrane of the airways.

To evaluate airway epithelial injury and mucus hypersecretion, lung sections were stained with PAS Fig. Semi-quantitative analyses also showed that CSBG or OVA alone modestly increased the number of mucus cells as compared with the vehicle. Histological findings of the periodic acid Schiff PAS -stained lungs. Lungs were obtained 24 h after the final intratracheal administration and representative photographs of PAS-stained lung tissues are shown. Mucus cell hyperplasia in the bronchial epithelium is expressed as the average number of PAS-positive cells per millimeter of basement membrane.

Protein levels of cytokines and chemokines in the lung homogenates. Lungs were removed and frozen 24 h after the last intratracheal administration. Serum samples were retrieved 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation. The number of cells expressing MHC class II, co-stimulatory molecules, and leukocyte markers in the lung. Lung cells were prepared 4 h after the last intratracheal instillation. The expression of cell surface molecules was analyzed by flow cytometry.

Toxicology of 1 - 3-Beta-Glucans | Glucans as a Marker for Fungal Exposure | Taylor & Francis Group

The numbers of each cell type in the lung are shown. Exposure to CSBG increased splenocyte proliferation in the absence of OVA in a dose-dependent manner showing an overall trend, with significance at a dose of Splenocyte proliferation. Surface expression of molecules related to antigen-presentation on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells BMDCs. After exposure, the expression of molecules related to antigen-presentation was analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentages of each cell type in the BMDC population are shown. BMDC function was assessed via their capacity to stimulate antigen-specific syngeneic T-cell proliferation Fig.

The proliferation of T cells responder cells was increased by the addition of BMDCs stimulator cells. The reaction was significantly increased when BMDCs were exposed to more than 1. Although the protein levels were increased by CSBG exposure dose-independently, the difference did not reach statistical significance data not shown. Thereafter, T-cell proliferation was evaluated. Correlation between fungi and allergic responses has been implicated. Airborne fungi and their products may contribute to the development and exacerbation of allergic airway diseases [ 26 , 27 ].

Increased spore counts and fungal allergen levels correlate with allergic symptoms [ 28 — 30 ]. Consistent with these epidemiological reports, fungal products including proteins reportedly induce immunologic and proinflammatory reactions and consequent Th2-related responses and the destruction of mucosal barrier functions [ 31 — 33 ]. Further, peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs from asthma patients produced significantly higher IL-5 protein levels on stimulation with C.

However, scientific evidence regarding the correlation between pathogenic fungi including C. Furthermore, investigation of the immunoregulatory effects of cell wall components from fungi has been inadequate.