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Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. Show all. Science and Society Pages Greco, Pietro. Lesson Hands-on exhibits based on local handicrafts: the experience of Calitri Pages Cerreta, Pietro.

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General advices Pages Maglio, Guglielmo. Workshop 1: Chemistry Pages Gaeta, Giulia et al. Workshop 3: Energy Pages Zanazzi, Alessandra et al. In these environments, there are some approaches to health education 9,10, A research 10 conducted at Rio de Janeiro's Museu da Vida Museum of Life has indicated that visits have contributed to "establish relations among the main topics discussed at the Museum history, science, technology, environment and health , extending young people's comprehension of health".

Some interactive museums around the world contemplate a subject that is a part of Speech, Language and Hearing Science: Human Communication 14, It comprehends sound production and reception, synthesized speech, animal communication mechanisms, linguistic similarities between adult speech and the babbling of a child exposed to the same language, phonemic sound production in human speech, among other related topics.

Considering that museums cover subjects that are of knowledge to the speech therapist, this professional is able to collaborate in developing interactive exhibits, making greater understanding of human communication more available to the public 14, In addition, the speech therapist can also make use of museums to contribute to the cultural and scientific literacy process of their patients suggesting that they visit the city's museums and participate in cultural activities.

Preventive care and health promotion are both part of speech therapy work. The Code of Professional Ethics determines that the Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology professional must participate in prevention care or health promotion campaigns whenever possible In this manner, actions related to "Human Communication" are extremely important seeing that communication allows individuals to become agents for transforming society and their own reality With primary care and speech rehabilitation, professionals should be aware of not only the pathology being treated, but also of meta-personal factors such as cultural and social conditions and access to health and leisure services and personal factors including linguistic and social characteristics and also lifestyle and health habits that determine quality of life In this context, the speech therapist can advise and encourage their patients to participate in cultural and educational activities.

Science communication in the United Kingdom

The goals of this research were to investigate the existence of exhibitions or displays on topics related to Human Communication in national and international museums and analyze this information with the purpose of identifying the subjects related to Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology that are discussed in museums. The search resulted in articles, being that 46 of them were not related to museums, 12 were duplicates, and three were in other languages.

The 43 remaining articles were in relation to museums. However, 18 texts were excluded considering they were regarding art or natural history museums or the full texts were not accessible.

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Of the 25 articles analyzed for the theoretical basis of this research, 14 were theoretical dissertations, eight were user-centered field surveys and three were museum experience reports. This survey detected a small amount of national museums. After selecting the museums, the respective websites were analyzed via Internet during the year of For each institution a table was created with the following data: name, location, URL, title of identified exhibition, title of related displays, description of the material encountered and the primarily discussed topic.

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For this research project, "exhibition" was considered as the area of the museum containing educational objects of the same subject and "display" was considered as an individual museum object. In this sense, an exhibition is composed by more than one display and a display is an object created to provide information or experiments with which the visitor interacts. In regard to the displays related to Human Communication, the following was found: objects built with anatomical models, static or interactive posters, computer software, equipment with informative films, musical instruments, installations, among others.

The material used in each display can vary greatly, for example: a display of the Listen exhibition at the Exploratorium Museum consists of a passageway with stones on the ground and very sensitive microphones which capture the intensity of the sound produced when the visitor walks over the stones. In this manner, exhibitions on Human Communication and displays arranged in different areas of the museums were analyzed. The aspects considered for this assessment were anatomical, physiological and physical features of hearing and phonation as well as broader aspects of natural languages, media, and communicative ability.

Communication through language stimulates the interaction between individuals and is associated with hearing, body expression and oral expressiveness which includes speech, voice, diction, respiration, and the linguistic-discursive elements Some were added to more than one category, seeing that many exhibitions and displays address more than one subject, for example acoustics and auditory system.

In view of the tables created for each institution, the data was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed resulting in a description of the exhibitions and displays regarding Human Communication that currently exist in the investigated science museums. Finally, a table was created with the "Key Information about the researched National Science Museums" using the data collected on the 20 Brazilian museums that were analyzed. Nine national museums had websites that were either outdated or showed very little information on their exhibitions.

In these cases, an e-mail was sent inquiring if the Museum had an exhibition or display in relation to Human Communication and requesting further information about the matter. Only three museums failed to return the message. Out of the 16 national museums, merely four have an entire exhibition concerning Human Communication.

The other Brazilian museums have one or more displays on this subject.

In regard to the international institutions, six museums have related exhibitions and 13 hold only a few related displays. The remaining seven international museums contain relevant displays in different exhibitions, in addition to a specific Human Communication related exhibition. The analysis of all these museums demonstrates that the top reoccurring subject in the displays is "acoustics" and secondly "auditory system". The museums contemplate the physics involved in communication or the message reception through hearing, but do not cover, for example, message production, language, and voice anatomy and physiology Chart 1.

The main information on the researched National Science Museums are provided in Appendix 1. In general, the amount of displays found in international museums was greater than the number found in national ones, and the quality of the displayed material also diverged. Some Brazilian museums four among those that were studied showed only one display related to acoustics - the sound mirrors or dishes - into which one visitor speaks at the center of a dish structure and another individual located meters away can hear the announcer.

Other museums offer printed explanatory posters or anatomical models that are to be read and viewed, but do not provide interactivity. To the contrary, in foreign museums there were large exhibitions with over 25 displays, advanced technological resources and manipulable objects that enable interactivity. Their conclusion was that Physics was the most discussed subject and, more than any other, has great potential in interactive museums since it enables elaboration of demonstrations and displays with which the visitor can handle experiments.

An exhibition worthy of special mention is Listen at the Exploratorium, composed of 48 displays. It's creation was based on stories told by four people who are "experienced listeners" and consider the sense of hearing very important: a cochlear implant user, a mechanic who identifies problems according to the car's noise, a person who monitors wildlife and a blind man who interprets the sounds around him to locate himself and get around his city.

It's displays consider hearing anatomy and physiology, auditory skills, sound transmission and music and they provide different sound sources for the visitor to create new sounds and recognize, in different ways, the existing ones in the museum. It's 33 displays were based on current research involving different Human Communication related professionals, including speech therapists.

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One of the displays compares the babbling of babies of different nationalities with the linguistic traits of the language spoken by their mothers. Another display shows a graphic representation of the tongue's position during the articulation of vowels and allows the visitor to modify the tongue's articulatory position in relation to the oral cavity and listen to the sound that would be produced.


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Other relevant displays that were found addressed subjects such as: hearing aids, cochlear implants, noise level capable of causing damage to the ciliated cells, vocal production with the use of laryngoscopy videos , synthesized speech, soundproofing with which the visitor can test what material is best for soundproofing , among others. Some peculiarities were brought to attention while comparing brazilian and foreign museums.

Contrarily, the information encountered on the international museums' websites was more complete and detailed. The amount of described exhibitions and displays was abundant and these institutions usually detail their exhibitions and even make online material available for visitors to access from home. However, the visit in person to some of the selected international museums indicated that not all displays are referred to on their websites Essentially, interactive science museums cover the basic sciences and, for this reason, acoustics and physics involved in hearing are well discussed.